Selecionamos as questões mais relevantes da prova de vestibular VUNESP 2017. Confira! * Obs.: a ordem e número das questões aqui não são iguais às da prova original.
Public space and the right to the city
It is essential to promote social inclusion by providing spaces for people of all socio‑economic backgrounds to use and enjoy. Quality public spaces such as libraries and parks can supplement housing as study and recreational spaces for the urban poor.
There is a need to ensure that there is an equitable distribution of public spaces within cities. Through the provision of quality public spaces in cities can reduce the economic and social segregation that is prevalent in many developed and developing cities. By ensuring the distribution, coverage and quality of public spaces, it is possible to directly influence the dynamics of urban density, to combine uses and to promote the social mixture of cities’ inhabitants.
Rights and duties of all the public space stakeholders should be clearly defined. Public spaces are public assets as a public space is by definition a place where all citizens are legitimate to be and discrimination should be tackled there. Public space has the capacity to gather people and break down social barriers. Protecting the inclusiveness of public space is a key prerequisite for the right to the city and an important asset to foster tolerance, conviviality and dialogue.
Public spaces in slums are only used to enable people to move. There is a lack of public space both in quantity and quality, leading to high residential density, high crime rates, lack of public facilities such as toilets or water, difficulties to practice outdoor sports and other recreational activities among others.
According to the text, by definition, public spaces:
are recreational outdoor areas in slums.
should be close to water like a river or a lake.
can be legitimately used by any citizen.
should offer attractions directed to a specific public.
satisfy different objectives in developed and developing cities.
Segundo o texto, o direito à cidade por parte dos cidadãos ocorrerá por meio:
dos próprios cidadãos.
No trecho do terceiro parágrafo “Public spaces are public assets”, o termo em destaque tem sentido, em português, de:
No trecho do terceiro parágrafo “as a public space is by definition”, o termo em destaque pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por:
In the fourth paragraph, an example of public facilities is:
high crime rates.
“One never builds something finished”:
the brilliance of architect Paulo Mendes da Rocha
February 4, 2017
“All space is public,” says Paulo Mendes da Rocha. “The only private space that you can imagine is in the human mind.” It is an optimistic statement from the 88-year-old Brazilian architect, given he is a resident of São Paulo, a city where the triumph of the private realm over the public could not be more stark. The sprawling megalopolis is a place of such marked inequality that its superrich hop between their rooftop helipads because they are too scared of street crime to come down from the clouds.
But for Mendes da Rocha, who received the 2017 gold medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects this week – an accolade previously bestowed on such luminaries as Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright – the ground is everything. He has spent his 60-year career lifting his massive concrete buildings up, in gravity-defying balancing acts, or else burying them below ground in an attempt to liberate the Earth’s surface as a continuous democratic public realm. “The city has to be for everybody,” he says, “not just for the very few.”
According to the text, São Paulo:
is an inclusive city where rich and poor citizens coexist.
lacks public recreational and cultural areas.
displays an optimistic atmosphere.
is characterized by deep inequality between rich and poor.
is the most violent megalopolis in Brazil.
Conforme o texto, Paulo Mendes da Rocha:
é conhecido por projetar somente edificações subterrâneas.
valoriza o caráter público do espaço.
superou arquitetos famosos, como Le Corbusier e Frank Lloyd Wright.
reside em São Paulo há 60 anos, onde projetou grandes obras.
considera que a mente humana resulta do pensamento coletivo.
No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “The sprawling megalopolis is a place of such marked inequality”, o termo em destaque indica:
No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “the triumph of the private realm over the public could not be more stark”, o termo em destaque tem sentido equivalente, em português, a:
No trecho do segundo parágrafo “The city has to be for everybody”, a expressão em destaque pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por: