Selecionamos as questões mais relevantes da prova de vestibular VUNESP 2018/1. Confira! * Obs.: a ordem e número das questões aqui não são iguais às da prova original.
According to the cartoon, Shep:
considers his friend boring.
thinks that humans are dumb.
believes animals are inarticulate.
agrees with what his friend said about animals.
feels insulted because he thinks he is a human.
Assinale a alternativa que completa a lacuna da tira.
am going to
No trecho do terceiro quadrinho “We’re not that dumb!”, o termo em destaque pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por:
When does the brain work best?
The peak times and ages for learning
What’s your ideal time of the day for brain performance? Surprisingly, the answer to this isn’t as simple as being a morning or a night person. New research has shown that certain times of the day are best for completing specific tasks, and listening to your body’s natural clock may help you to accomplish more in 24 hours.
Science suggests that the best time for our natural peak productivity is late morning. Our body temperatures start to rise just before we wake up in the morning and continue to increase through midday, Steve Kay, a professor of molecular and computational biology at the University of Southern California told The Wall Street Journal. This gradual increase in body temperature means that our working memory, alertness, and concentration also gradually improve, peaking at about mid morning. Our alertness tends to dip after this point, but one study suggested that midday fatigue may actually boost our creative abilities. For a 2011 study, 428 students were asked to solve a series of two types of problems, requiring either analytical or novel thinking. Results showed that their performance on the second type was best at non-peak times of day when they were tired.
As for the age where our brains are at peak condition, science has long held that fluid intelligence, or the ability to think quickly and recall information, peaks at around age 20. However, a 2015 study revealed that peak brain age is far more complicated than previously believed and concluded that there are about 30 subsets of intelligence, all of which peak at different ages for different people. For example, the study found that raw speed in processing information appears to peak around age 18 or 19, then immediately starts to decline, but short-term memory continues to improve until around age 25, and then begins to drop around age 35, Medical Xpress reported. The ability to evaluate other people’s emotional states peaked much later, in the 40s or 50s. In addition, the study suggested that out our vocabulary may peak as late as our 60s’s or 70’s.
Still, while working according to your body’s natural clock may sound helpful, it’s important to remember that these times may differ from person to person. On average, people can be divided into two distinct groups: morning people tend to wake up and go to sleep earlier and to be most productive early in the day. Evening people tend to wake up later, start more slowly and peak in the evening. If being a morning or evening person has been working for you the majority of your life, it may be best to not fix what’s not broken.
(Dana Dovey. www.medicaldaily.com, 08.08.2016. Adaptado.)
According to the first and second paragraphs, the brain performance peaks in late morning because:
body temperature gets higher at this time of the day.
specific tasks stimulate the brain.
most people wake up quite early.
it’s easier to solve problems in the morning than at midday.
human natural rhythm reaches a steady level.
According to the second paragraph, the 2011 study showed that:
both analytical and novel thinking were better accomplished before midday.
most people feel a midday fatigue.
alertness quickly decreases after the brain peaks.
most of the 428 students felt tired early in the morning.
novel thinking was better when the brain was at non-peak times.
De acordo com o terceiro parágrafo, o estudo de 2015:
confirma que o vocabulário das pessoas se desenvolve até cerca dos 60 anos de idade.
infere que o processo de elaboração da inteligência emocional dura a vida toda.
contradiz a ideia de que a inteligência fluida atinge o ápice por volta dos 20 anos de idade.
mostra que a velocidade de processamento de informações no cérebro atinge o máximo dos 25 aos 35 anos.
demonstra que vários tipos de inteligência se desenvolvem aos 30 anos de idade.
No trecho do terceiro parágrafo “However, a 2015 study revealed”, o termo em destaque pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por:
As informações apresentadas no quarto parágrafo:
indicam que o grupo das pessoas que acordam cedo tem melhor desempenho no trabalho.
alertam que as pessoas com hábitos noturnos podem ter dificuldades de adaptação às atividades criativas.
afirmam que quem acorda tarde, geralmente, tem raciocínio lento.
relativizam o estudo que afirma que o final da manhã é o melhor período para a atividade cerebral.
revelam que, mesmo considerando as diferenças individuais, há dois tipos de raciocínio analítico.
No trecho do quarto parágrafo “while working according to your body’s natural clock”, o termo em destaque tem sentido, em português, de:
O trecho do quarto parágrafo “it may be best to not fix what’s not broken” equivale, em português, à seguinte ideia:
é melhor prevenir do que remediar.
vaso ruim não quebra.
uma vez quebrado, não adianta consertar.
se não tem solução, solucionado está.
não se mexe em time que está ganhando.