Questões da prova PUC-Campinas 2017/1 Geral

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* Obs.: a ordem e número das questões aqui não são iguais às da prova original.

Questão 21:

Which is the best English translation for: Que tal então a gastronomia, mais na moda do que nunca?


Questão 22:

No mundo da gastronomia muitas vezes é necessário ampliar ou reduzir receitas devido a alterações no número de participantes de determinada refeição. Uma receita propõe a utilização de 280 mL de leite na execução de uma sobremesa para 5 pessoas, e há a necessidade de executá-la exatamente para 54 pessoas. Se as embalagens de leite contêm 500 mL cada, então, é necessário ter em mãos pelo menos:


Questão 23:

Leia atentamente a afirmação abaixo, sobre produtos transgênicos:

Alimentos transgênicos são alimentos geneticamente modificados com alteração do código genético.

A afirmação é:


Questão 24:

Em 2014, o Brasil se consolidou como o país que possui a segunda maior área plantada com transgênicos no mundo, com destaque para os estados do Mato Grosso, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Goiás. Os cultivos com maior proporção de transgênicos são:


Questão 25:

Farm-to-Table
A Simple Definition

By Molly Watson

"Farm-to-table" is a phrase that can mean different things to different people. At its heart, however, "farm-to-table" means that the food on the table came directly from a specific farm, without going through a store, market, or distributor along the way.

In its purest, most honest form, "farm-to-table" means the table is actually at the farm and cooks or chefs prepare and serve the food at the farm (even in the field). These are often special meals or fundraisers planned as one-off events.

More commonly, the use of "farm-to-table" emphasizes a direct relationship between a farm and a restaurant. Rather than buying through a distributor or food service, some restaurants establish relationships with a farm and buy directly from them.

Farmers benefit by being able to reap more of the profit their goods can earn at market, and many enjoy knowing how their food will be treated and cooked.

Restaurants are usually motivated to these direct relationships by the quality and freshness of the food they get from the farms (items will often be delivered directly to the restaurant within hours of being harvested), as well as the ability to get specialty items that not many people in their area grow.

In some cases, restaurants and farms may have a fairly deep or serious commitment to one another, with the farm growing produce specifically requested by the chef, or the restaurant guaranteeing to buy a certain percentage (or even the entirety) of a crop.

"Farm-to-table" can also refer more loosely to farmers markets and other venues where people can buy food directly from growers, with the table being the one at their house. Like anything with some prestige to it, "farm-to-table" gets overused and definitely misused. I've even seen it on grocery store signs.

And while those vegetables were grown on a farm and would, if they were purchased, be brought home and quite likely served and eaten on a table, that's not what the spirit behind "farm-to-table" means. The very fact that the food has stopped at the grocery store between being at the farm and getting to the table means that it is decidedly not "farm-to-table."

How can you know if something labeled "farm-to-table" really is? Anyone using the phrase "farm-to-table" should be able to name the specific farm(s) from which they are sourcing, since they would have gotten the goods directly from that farm!
(Adapted from http://localfoods.about.com/od/localfoodsglossary/g/Definition-Of-Farm-To-Table.htm)

In the text, the meaning of ‘one-off events’ is:


Questão 26:

Farm-to-Table
A Simple Definition

By Molly Watson

"Farm-to-table" is a phrase that can mean different things to different people. At its heart, however, "farm-to-table" means that the food on the table came directly from a specific farm, without going through a store, market, or distributor along the way.

In its purest, most honest form, "farm-to-table" means the table is actually at the farm and cooks or chefs prepare and serve the food at the farm (even in the field). These are often special meals or fundraisers planned as one-off events.

More commonly, the use of "farm-to-table" emphasizes a direct relationship between a farm and a restaurant. Rather than buying through a distributor or food service, some restaurants establish relationships with a farm and buy directly from them.

Farmers benefit by being able to reap more of the profit their goods can earn at market, and many enjoy knowing how their food will be treated and cooked.

Restaurants are usually motivated to these direct relationships by the quality and freshness of the food they get from the farms (items will often be delivered directly to the restaurant within hours of being harvested), as well as the ability to get specialty items that not many people in their area grow.

In some cases, restaurants and farms may have a fairly deep or serious commitment to one another, with the farm growing produce specifically requested by the chef, or the restaurant guaranteeing to buy a certain percentage (or even the entirety) of a crop.

"Farm-to-table" can also refer more loosely to farmers markets and other venues where people can buy food directly from growers, with the table being the one at their house. Like anything with some prestige to it, "farm-to-table" gets overused and definitely misused. I've even seen it on grocery store signs.

And while those vegetables were grown on a farm and would, if they were purchased, be brought home and quite likely served and eaten on a table, that's not what the spirit behind "farm-to-table" means. The very fact that the food has stopped at the grocery store between being at the farm and getting to the table means that it is decidedly not "farm-to-table."

How can you know if something labeled "farm-to-table" really is? Anyone using the phrase "farm-to-table" should be able to name the specific farm(s) from which they are sourcing, since they would have gotten the goods directly from that farm!
(Adapted from http://localfoods.about.com/od/localfoodsglossary/g/Definition-Of-Farm-To-Table.htm)

According to the author of the text:


Questão 27:

O glúten é formado pelas proteínas gliadina e glutenina, que se encontram naturalmente na semente de muitos cereais, como trigo, cevada, centeio e aveia. A formação das proteínas depende da união dos aminoácidos por meio de ligações do tipo:


Questão 28:

Cloreto de sódio, um composto iônico, é o principal componente do sal de cozinha, sendo retirado da água do mar. Já o sódio metálico não existe na natureza e, para obtê-lo, pode-se realizar a eletrólise ígnea do cloreto de sódio. Sabendo que o elemento sódio pertence ao grupo 1 da Tabela Periódica, quando se realiza a eletrólise ígnea para obtenção do sódio metálico, o número de oxidação desse elemento varia de:


Questão 29:

Os fertilizantes usados na agricultura podem ser arrastados até os corpos de água e desencadear o fenômeno de eutrofização. Considere as seguintes características de sistemas aquáticos:

I. baixo nível de nutrientes.
II. pouca penetração da luz.
III. alto crescimento de algas.
IV. alta diversidade de peixes.

São características de águas eutrofizadas APENAS:


Questão 30:

Fertilizantes do tipo NPK possuem proporções diferentes dos elementos nitrogênio (N), fósforo (P) e potássio (K). Uma formulação comum utilizada na produção de pimenta é a NPK 4-30-16, que significa 4% de nitrogênio total, 30% de P2O5 e 16% de K2O, em massa. Assim, a quantidade, em mol, de P contida em 100 g desse fertilizante é de, aproximadamente:

Dados:
Massas molares (g . mol−1)
O = 16,0
P = 31,0


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